Niyazi Berkes ve Şerif Mardin'in Modernleşme Anlayışlarının Karşılaştırılması
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Modernization has been a contentious topic that sociologists have devoted time to from classical sociological theories to contemporary sociological theories. It encompasses deep economic, political, social, and cultural changes that have occurred from the Ottoman Empire to the Republic of Turkey. Niyazi Berkes and Şerif Mardin are two significant thinkers who have addressed the transformations and changes in Turkish social life. This study aims to examine the process of Turkish modernization/contemporization by Niyazi Berkes and Şerif Mardin within the framework of their contextual perspectives. The study includes the biographies of the relevant thinkers, the sociological trends of their time, and the historical transformations related to Turkish modernization. The conclusion focuses on the similarities and differences between the thinkers. Drawing on Charles Taylor's theory of "Two Types of Modernity," the study categorizes Niyazi Berkes as a culturalist and Şerif Mardin as an acculturalist. The objective is to provide a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the thinkers' knowledge on modernization/contemporization. Niyazi Berkes examines the changes Turkey has undergone in the past two centuries through a historical sociological lens. He approaches the process of modernization in a positivist context, discussing how societies constantly progress and transform based on social and economic indicators. Berkes places Europe at the center of modernization, suggesting that non-Western countries would progress by establishing a resemblance with the West. Consequently, it can be said that Berkes holds a culturalist approach. On the other hand, Şerif Mardin is another Turkish sociologist who, like Berkes, examines the changes that have taken place over two centuries. Mardin refers to technical and structural changes in his analysis of the modernization process. He adopts a hermeneutic approach, utilizing various methodological elements in his work, as he believes that approaching events from a macro perspective may lead to generalization errors. Mardin employs the center-periphery theory in his interpretation of modernization, presenting a separate analysis of the center and periphery through micro-examples. He believes that modernization differs from country to country, which positions Mardin as a culturalist thinker.