19.YUZYILDA AVRUPA'DA CİNSİYET ROLLERİNİN KADIN BESTECİLERİN MESLEKİ YAŞAMLARINA ETKİLERİNİN İNCELENMESİ
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When we look at the history of music, it is noticeable that female composers, compared to their male counterparts, did not receive an equal quality of education and their numbers have consistently been fewer in every era. However, in the 19th century, a period marked by significant changes in Europe in various fields such as technology, science, and philosophy, there was a parallel shift in the status of women, leading to the emergence of notable female composers. In this century, women who previously had limited access to education and professional opportunities began to gain wider educational rights and entered various professions. As a result, with the increased opportunity for women to participate in societal life, many women in 19th century Europe were able to perform and compose music. Nevertheless, it is still evident that men dominated both the performance and composition domains during this century. Throughout the 19th century, not only in Europe but also in many countries around the world, the prevailing belief was that men were better suited for professional music than women. Women in this century were often limited to making music in domestic settings or restricted to singing. Becoming a concert performer, professor, or orchestra conductor was generally considered beyond the realm of possibility for them. This study is conducted to examine the lives of female composers in the 19th century, shedding light on how they confronted the challenges they faced. In this context, the study is divided into four sections. The first section discusses music and life in 19th-century Europe. The second section delves into the female composers of the era, providing detailed accounts of their lives and works. The third section explores the impact of the social norms of the 19th century on the aforementioned female composers and their compositions. Finally, the fourth section presents the conclusions drawn from all the information presented.