Recently, while being few in numbers, there have been studies focusing on
survey quality and discussing sources of survey errors. Studies in the literature have
emphasized on relatively controllable sampling errors, instead of non-sampling errors,
which are costly to determine and difficult to control.
This thesis aims to reveal profiles of data collection staff candidates involved
in 2013 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS-2013) recruitment process.
This process consisted of different stages, in which the candidates filled in various
forms. In order to reach the aim of this study, a special data set named “TDHS-2013
Data Collection Staff data” (hereafter, “staff data set”) was constructed using these
forms. Descriptive analyses are carried out using nationally representative household
and women data sets from the TDHS-2013 along with the staff data set. Moreover, pre
and post processes of the fieldwork are compared by means of certain information
obtained from recruitment forms. Furthermore, effects of interviewer characteristics
on both number of completed interviews and interviewer performance are considered.
Additionally, results of interviews, response rates and completion rates, along with
sample provinces and assignments of the staff, are evaluated on the basis of data
collection staff for household interviews and women interviews.
Results indicate that information on the candidates should be gathered fully
and kept updated to carry out further analyses in detail. The constructed staff data set
let us examine the profiles of all applicants for the TDHS-2013 fieldwork, and evaluate
the relation between interviewer characteristics and their performances. However, the
constructed staff data set with the available information of interviewers was not
suitable to make assessments regarding the attitudes, behaviors, and expectations of
interviewers. Additionally, calculated calendar ratios on displacement of child birth
dates imply that there is a potential interview bias on child birth date information. We
expect this study will be a starting point for further studies analyzing interviewer
profile, and investigating for a relation between data collection staff and survey
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citationANDERSON, R., J. KASPER and M. FRANKEL. “Total survey error: Applications
to improve health surveys.” Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francis, 1979.
ASSAEL, H. and J. KEON. “Nonsampling vs. sampling errors in survey research.”
The Journal of Marketing, 1982: 114-123.
AYHAN, H. O. “Sources of Nonresponse Bias in 1978 Turkish Fertility Survey.”
Turkish Journal of Population Studies, 2-3, 1981: 104-148.
AYHAN, H. O. “Survey Nonresponse Models and Applications in Turkey.” In
Official Statistics in a Changing World, Stockholm, Statistics Sweden
Press, 1998: 155-158.
BAILAR, B.A. and T. DALENIUS. “Estimating the response variance components of
the US Bureau of the Census' survey model.” Sankhyā: The Indian Journal
of Statistics, Series B, 1969: 341-360.
BARON, R. A. “Interviewers’ Moods and Evaluations of Job Applicants: The Role of
Applicant Qualifications.” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23(4),
BALLOU, J. and F. K. DEL BOCA. “Gender interaction effects on survey measures
in telephone interviews.” In annual meeting of the American Association of
Public Opinion Research, Mason, Ohio, 1980.
BEATTY, P. “Understanding the standardized/non-standardized interviewing
controversy.” Journal of Official Statistics, 11(2), 1995: 147.
BEEBE, T. J., M. E. DAVERN, D. D. MCALPINE, K. T. CALL, T. H. ROCKWOOD.
“Increasing response rates in a survey of Medicaid enrollees: the effect of a
prepaid monetary incentive and mixed modes (mail and telephone).” Medical
Care, 43(4), 2005: 411-414.
BELLHOUSE, D. R. “London Plague Statistics in 1665.” Journal of Official
Statistics, 14(2), 1998: 207.
BENTLEY, M., J. M. HILL, C. REISER, S. STOKES and A. MEIER. “2010 Census
Quality Survey Final Report.” United States Department of Commerce,
Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau, 2011.
BERK, M. L. and A. B. BERNSTEIN. “Interviewer characteristics and performance
on a complex health survey.” Social Science Research, 17(3), 1988: 239-251.
BETHELEM, J. “Applied survey methods: A Statistical Perspective.” John & Wiley
Sons, Vol. 558, 2009.
BIEMER, P. P., L. STOKES. “The Optimal Design of Quality Control Samples to
Detect Interviewer Cheating.” Journal of Official Statistics, Vol. 5, No. 1,
BIEMER, P. P. and D. TREWIN. “A review of measurement error effects on the
analysis of survey data.” Survey measurement and process quality, 1997:
BIEMER, P. P. and L. E. LYBERG. “Introduction to Survey Quality.” John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2003.
BIEMER, P. P. “An analysis of classification error for the revised Current Population
Survey employment questions.” Survey Methodology, 30(2), 2004: 127-
BLOM, A. G. and KORBMACHER J. M. “Measuring Interviewer Characteristics
Pertinent to Social Surveys: A Conceptual Framework.” Survey Methods:
Insights from the Field, 2013.
BOWLEY, A. L. “Working-class households in reading.” Journal of the Royal
Statistical Society, 76(7), 1913: 672-701.
BOWLING, A. “Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data
quality.” Journal of public health, 27 (3), 2005: 281-291.
BRACKSTONE, G. “Managing Data Quality in a Statistical Agency.” Survey
Methodology, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1999: 139-149.
CANNEL, C. and R. KHAN. “Interviewing.” The Handbook of Social Psychology,
Vol. 2, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1968: 526-595.
CANNEL, C. F., P. V. MILLER, L. OKSENBERG. “Research on Interviewing
Techniques.” American Sociological Association, Sociological Methodology,
Vol. 12, 1981:389-437.
CAMPANELLI, P., P. STURGIS and S. PURDON. “Can you hear me knocking? and
investigation into the impact of interviewers on survey response rates.”
National Centre for Social Research, 1997.
CIALDINI, R. B. “Influence: The new psychology of modern persuasion.” New York:
COCHRAN, W. G. “Sampling techniques.” 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1977.
CROSBY, P. B. “Quality is free: The art of making quality certain.” Signet, 1980.
DALENIUS, T. “Elements of Survey Sampling.” Swedish Agency for Research
Cooperation with Developing Countries, Stockholm, Sweden, 1985.
DAS, M., W. K. NEWEY and F. VELLA. “Nonparametric estimation of sample
selection models.” The Review of Economic Studies, 70(1), 2003: 33-58.
DAVIS, R. E., M. P. COUPER, N. K. JANZ, C. H. CALDWELL and K. RESNICOW,
“Interviewer effects in public health surveys.” Health education research,
DAYTON, C. M. “Logistic Regression Analysis.” 1992.
DEMING, W. E. “Some principles of Shewhart methods of quality control.”
Mechanical Engineering, 66(2), 1944.
DEMING, W. E. “Out of the crisis.” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center
for advanced engineering study, Cambridge, MA, 1986: 510.
DIJKSTRA, W. and J. VAN DER ZOUWEN. “Styles of interviewing and the social
context of the survey-interview.”, Social information processing and survey
methodology, 200-211, Springer New York, 1987.
DILLMAN, D. A. and L. M. CHRISTIAN, “Survey mode as a source of instability in
responses across surveys.” Field methods, 17(1), 2005: 30-52.
D’ORAZIO, M., M. DI ZIO, M. SCANU. “Old and new approaches in statistical
matching when samples are drawn with complex survey designs.”
Proceedings of the 45th “Riunione Scientifica della Societa’Italiana di
Statistica”, Padova, 2010: 16-18.
DUAN, N., W. G. MANNING, C. N. MORRIS and J. P. NEWHOUSE. “A
comparison of alternative models for the demand for medical care.” Journal
of business & economic statistics, 1(2), 1983: 115-126.
DURBINS, J. and A. STUART. “Differences in response rates of experienced and
inexperienced interviewers.” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A
(General), 114(2), 1951: 163-206.
DURRANT G. B., R. M. GROVES, L. STAETSKY and F. STEELE. “Effects of
Interviewer Attitudes and Behaviors on Refusal in Household
Surveys.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 2010.
DYKEMA, J., J. M. LEPKOWSKI and S. BLIXT. “The effect of interviewer and
respondent behavior on data quality: Analysis of interaction coding in a
validation study.” Survey measurement and process quality, 1997: 287-310.
EUROSTAT, “Assessment of the Quality in Statistics.” General Standard Report,
April 4-5, Luxembourg, 2000.
FELDMAN, J. J., H. HYMAN and C. W. HART. “A field study of interviewer effects
on the quality of survey data.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 15(4), 1951: 734-
FISHER, R. J. “Social desirability bias and the validity of indirect questioning.”
Journal of consumer research, 20(2), 1993: 303-315.
FLORES-MACIAS, F. and C. LAWSON. “Effects of interviewer gender on survey
responses: Findings from a household survey in Mexico.” International
Journal of Public Opinion Research, 20(1), 2008: 100-110.
FOWLER JR, F. J. and T. W. MANGIONE. “Standardized survey interviewing:
Minimizing interviewer-related error.” Vol. 18., Sage, 1990.
FOWLER JR, F. J. “Reducing Interviewer‐Related Error Through Interviewer
Training, Supervision, and Other Means.” Measurement errors in surveys,
FREEMAN J. and E. W. BUTLER. “Some sources of interviewer variance in
surveys.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 40(1), 1976: 79-91.
FULLER, W. A. “Measurement error models.” John Wiley & Sons, Vol. 305, 2009.
FUSCH, V. R. “The future of health economics.” Journal of Health Economics, 19(2),
GREENBERG, B. S. and S. L. STOKES (1990). “for a Telephone Survey.” Journal of
Official Statistics, 6(4), 1990: 421-435.
GREENE, W. H. “Econometric analysis.” Pearson Education India, 2003.
GROVES, R. M. and N. H. FULTZ. “Gender effects among telephone interviewers in
a survey of economic attitudes.” Sociological Methods & Research, 14(1),
GROVES, R. M. "Survey costs and survey errors." New York, 1989.
GROVES, R. M. and M. COUPER. “Nonresponse in Household Interview Surveys.”
Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1998.
GROVES, R. M. and K. A. MCGONAGLE. “A Theory-Guided Interviewer Training
Protocol Regarding’ Survey Participation.” Journal of Official Statistics, 17(2),
GROVES, R. M. “Survey nonresponse.” Vol. 326, Wiley-Interscience, 2002.
GROVES, R. M. “Survey errors and survey costs.” Vol. 536, John Wiley & Sons,
GROVES, R. M., P. STANLEY and S. DIPKO. “The role of topic interest in survey
participation decisions.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 68.1, 2004: 2-31.
GROVES, R. M. and E. PETYCHEVA. “The Impact of Nonresponse Rates on
Nonresponse Bias, A Meta-Analysis.”, Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(2),
GROVES, R. M., F. J. FOWLER, M. P. COUPER, J. M. LEPKOWSKI, E. SINGER
and R. TOURANGEAU. “Survey Methodology.” A John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
GROVES, R. M. and L. LYBERG. “Total survey error: Past, present and future.”
Public Opinion Quarterly, 74(5), 849-879.
GROVES, R. M. and M. P. COUPER. “Nonresponse in household interview surveys.”
John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
GUBRIUM, J. F. and J. A. HOLSTEIN. “From the individual interview to the
interview society.” Postmodern interviewing, 2003: 21-50.
HANSEN, M., W. HURWITZ and M. BERSHAD. “Measurement Errors in Censuses
and Surveys.” Bulletin of the Statistical Institute, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1961: 359-
HANSEN, M. H., W. N. HURWITZ and L. PRITZKER. “The estimation and
interpretation of gross differences and the simple response variance.” Bureau
of the Census, 1963.
HANSEN, M. H., T. DALENIUS and B. J. TEPPING. “The development of sample
surveys of finite populations.” In A Celebration of Statistics, Springer New
York, 1985: 327-354.
HANSEN, K. M. “The effects of incentives, interview length, and interviewer
characteristics on response rates in a CATI-study.” International Journal of
Public Opinion Research, 19(1), 2007: 112-121.
HANSON, R. H. and E. S. MARKS. “Influence of the Interviewer on the Accuracy of
Survey Results.” Journal of American Statistical Association, 53 (283), 635-
HATCHETT, S. and H. SCHUMAN. “Race of Interviewer Effects upon White
Respondents.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 39(4), 1975: 523-528.
HECKMAN, J. J. “Statistical models for discrete panel data.” Department of
Economics and Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago, 1979.
HEERINGA S. G., B. T. WEST, and P. A. BERGLUND. “Applied Survey Data
Analysis.” Chapman and Hall, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2010.
HOUSE, S. J., F. T. JUSTER, R. L. KAHN, H. SCHUMAN and E. SINGER. “A
Telescope on Society.” The University of Michigan Press, 2004.
HOX, J., E. DE LEEUW, M. P. COUPER, R. M. GROVES, W. DE HEER, V.
KUUSELA and J. MARTIN. “The influence of interviewers’ attitude and
behavior on household survey nonresponse: An international
comparison.” Survey nonresponse, 2002: 103-120.
HUIPS, “Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2013.” Ankara, 2014.
INSTITUTE FOR RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT. “An Assessment of DHS-I Data
Quality.” DHS Methodological Reports, No. 1., Maryland, 1990.
ISAAC, S. and W. B. MICHAEL. “Handbook in research and evaluation.” 1971.
ISHIKAWA, K. “Guide to quality control.” Asian Productivity Organization, 1982.
JAPEC, L. “Quality Issues in Interview Surveys-Some Contributions.” Bulletin de
JURAN, J. M. and F. M. GRYNA. “Quality Planning and Analysis.” McGraw-Hill,
New York, 1980.
KADAM, P. and S. BHALERAO. “Sample size calculation.” International journal of
Ayurveda research, 1(1), 2010: 55.
KAHN, R. L. and C. F. CANNEL. “Interviewing.” International encyclopedia of the
social sciences, 8, 1968: 149-161.
KANE, E. W. and L. J. MACAULAY. “Interviewer gender and gender attitudes.”
Public Opinion Quarterly, 57(1), 1-28.
KISH, L. “Survey Sampling.” John & Wiley Sons, 1965.
KIAER, A. “Proceedings.” Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute, 1897.
KLEIN, L. R. “Introduction to econometrics.” Prentice Hall, 1962.
KORBMACHER, J. M. and M. SCHROEDER. “Consent when linking survey data
with administrative records: the role of the interviewer.” In Survey Research
Methods, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2013: 115-131.
KORBMACHER, J. M. “Interviewer Effects on Respondents’ Willingness to Provide
Blood Samples in SHARE.” SHARE Working Paper Series, 20-2014, 2014.
KRAEMER, K. L. “The information systems research challenge.” Vol. III: Survey
Research Methods, Harvard University Graduate School of Business
KREUTER, F., S. PRESSER and R. TOURANGEAU. “Social desirability bias in
CATI, IVR, and Web surveys the effects of mode and question sensitivity.”
Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(5), 2008: 847-865.
KRUMPAL, I. “Determinants of social desirability bias in sensitive surveys: a
literature review.” Quality & Quantity, 47(4), 2013: 2025-2047.
KULKA, R. A. and M. F. WEEKS. “Toward the development of optimal calling
protocols for telephone surveys: a conditional probabilities approach.” Journal
of Official Statistics, 4(4), 1988: 319-332.
LEEUW, E. D., J. J. HOX and G. SNIJKERS. “The effect of computer-assisted
interviewing on data quality.” Journal of the Market Research Society, 37(4),
LEEUW, E. D. and M. COLLINS. “Data collection methods and survey quality: an
overview.” Survey measurement and process quality, 1997: 197-220.
LEEUW, E. D. “To mix or not to mix data collection modes in surveys.” Journal of
official statistics, 21(2), 2005: 233.
LESSER, V. M. and W. D. KALSBEEK. “Non-sampling error in surveys.” Wiley,
LEUNG, S. F. and S. YU. “On the choice between sample selection and two-part
models.” Journal of econometrics, 72(1), 1996: 197-229.
LIAO, D. and R. VALLIANT. “Variance inflation factors in the analysis of complex
survey data.” Survey Methodology, 38(1), 2012: 53-62.
LIKERT, R. “A technique for the measurement of attitudes.” Archives in Psychology,
140, 1932: 1-55.
LOOSVELDT, G. and B. KOEN. “A Procedure to Assess Interviewer Effects on
Nonresponse Bias.” SAGE Open, 4(1), 2014.
LYNN, P. “The impact of incentives on response rates to personal interview surveys:
Role and perceptions of interviewers.” International Journal of Public Opinion
LYBERG, L. and D. KASPRZYK. “Data collection methods and measurement error:
an overview.” Measurement errors in surveys, 1991: 235-257.
LYBERG, L. and C. M. CASSEL. “Sample Surveys: The field.” International
Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 20, 2001: 13475-13480.
LYBERG, L. E., P. P. BIEMER, M. COLLINS, E. D. DE LEEUW, C. DIPPO, N.
SCHWARZ and D. TREWIN. “Survey measurement and process quality.”
Vol. 999, John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
MAHALANOBIS, P. C. “Recent experiments in statistical sampling in the Indian
Statistical Institute.” The Indian Journal of Statistics (1933-1960), 20(3/4),
MINATO, H. “Interviewer Effects on Survey Questionnaire Response Times: A
Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis of Multivariate Survival Paradata.” American
Statistical Association, JSM Proceedings, Survey Research Methods Section,
MOORMAN, P., B. NEWMAN, R. MILLIKAN, C. K. TSE, D. SANDLER.
“Participation rates in a case-control study: The impact of age, race, and race
of interviewer.” Annals of epidemiology, 9(3), 1999: 188-195.
MORGANSTEIN, D. and D. A. MARKER. “Continuous quality improvement in
statistical agencies.” Survey measurement and process quality, 1997: 475-500.
MORTON-WILLIAMS, J. “Interviewer approaches.” Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1993.
MUSCIO, B. “The influence of the form of a question.” British Journal of Psychology,
1904-1920, 8(3), 1917: 351-389.
NAGELKERKE, N. J. “A note on a general definition of the coefficient of
determination.” Biometrika, 78(3), 1991: 691-692.
NEALON, J. “The effects of male vs. female telephone interviewers.” In Proceedings
of the Survey Research Methods Section of the American Statistical
Association, 1983: 139-41.
NEMETH, R. “Respondent selection within the household-A modification of the Kish
grid. In Meeting of Young Statisticians, 2002: 51.
NEUMAN, L. W. “Social Research Methods: Qualitative and quantitative
approaches.” Allyn & Bacon, 2002.
NEYMAN, J. “On the two different aspects of the representative method: the method
of stratified sampling and the method of purposive selection.” Journal of the
Royal Statistical Society, 97(4), 1934: 558-625.
OLDENDICK, R. W., G. F. BISHOP, S. B. SORENSON and A. J. TUCHFARBER.
“A comparison of the Kish and last birthday methods of respondent selection
in telephone surveys.” Journal of Official Statistics, 4(4), 1988: 307-318
OLSON, K. M. and A. PEYTCHEV. “Effect of Interviewer Experience on Interviewer
Pace and Interviewer Attitudes.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 71(2), 2007: 273-
O’MUIRCHEARTAIGH, C. and P. CAMPANELLI. “The Relative Impact of
Interviewer Effects and Sample Design Effects on Survey Precision.” Journal
of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 161(1), 1998:
O’MUIRCHEARTAIGH, C. and P. CAMPANELLI. “A multilevel exploration of the
role of interviewers in survey non‐response.” Journal of the Royal Statistical
Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 162(3), 1999: 437-446.
PARK, H. M. “Multicollinearity in Regression Models.” Jeeshim and KUCC625,
PENG, C. Y., K. L. LEE and G. M. INGERSOLL. “An introduction to logistic
regression analysis and reporting.” The journal of educational research, 96(1),
PICKERY, J., G. LOOSVELDT, and A. CARTON. “The effects of interviewer and
respondent characteristics on response behavior in panel surveys a multilevel
approach.” Sociological Methods & Research, 29(4), 2001: 509-523.
RICE, S. A. “Contagious bias in the interview: A methodological note.” American
Journal of Sociology, 1929: 420-423.
RUTSTEIN, S. O., G. ROJAS. “Guide to DHS statistics.” Calverton, MD: ORC
SAKSHAUG, J. W., T. YAN and R. TOURANGEAU. “Nonresponse error,
measurement error, and mode of data collection: Tradeoffs in a multi-mode
survey of sensitive and non-sensitive items.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 74(5),
SAKSHAUG, J. W., M. P. COUPER, M. B. OFSTEDAL and D. R. WEIR. “Linking
survey and administrative records mechanisms of consent.” Sociological
Methods & Research, 41(4), 2012: 535-569.
SAKSHAUG, J. W., V. TUTZ and F. KREUTER. “Placement, wording, and
interviewers: Identifying correlates of consent to link survey and
administrative data.” Survey Research Methods, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2013: 133-144.
SALA, E., J. BURTON and G. KNIES. “Correlates of Obtaining Informed Consent to
Data Linkage Respondent, Interview, and Interviewer
Characteristics.” Sociological Methods & Research, 41(3), 2012: 414-439.
SANDEN N. V. and D. STEEL. “Optimal Estimation of Interviewer Effects for Binary
Response Variables through Partial Interpenetration.” Centre for Statistical and
Survey Methodology, University of Wollongong, Working Paper 04-08, 2008.
SCHAEFFER, N. C., J. DYKEMA and D. W. MAYNARD. “Interviewers and
interviewing.” Handbook of survey research, 2010: 437-70.
SCHEUREN, F. “What is a Survey?.” American Statistical Association, 2005.
SCHEUREN, F. “How important is accuracy?.” In Proceedings of Statistics Canada
SCHOBER, M. F. and F. G. CONRAD. “Does conversational interviewing reduce
survey measurement error?.”Public opinion quarterly, 1997: 576-602.
SCHWARZ, N., F. STRACK, H. J. HIPPLER, G. BISHOP. “The impact of
administration mode on response effects in survey measurement.” Applied
Cognitive Psychology, 5(3), 1991: 193-212.
SCHUMAN, H. and J. M. CONVERSE. “The effects of black and white interviewers
on black responses in 1968.”Public opinion quarterly, 35(1), 1971: 44-68.
SINGER, E. and L. KOHNKE-AGUIRRE. “Interviewer expectation effects: A
replication and extension.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 43(2), 1979: 245-260.
SINGH, A. S. and M. B. MASUKU. “Sampling techniques & determination of sample
size in applied statistics research: An overview.” International Journal of
Economics, Commerce and Management, 2(11), 2014: 1-22.
STEPHAN, F. F. “History of the uses of modern sampling procedures.” Journal of the
American statistical Association, 43(241), 1948: 12-39.
STATISTICS CANADA. “Statistics Canada Quality Guidelines.” Ottowa, Canada,
STATISTICS SWEDEN. “Projektarbete vid SCB” (in Swedish), Stockholm, Sweden,
STEVENS, J. A. and B. BAILAR. “The relationship between various interviewer
characteristics and the collection of income data.” In annual meeting of the
American Statistical Association, Boston, MA, 1976.
SUCHMAN, L. and B. JORDAN. “Interactional troubles in face-to-face survey
interviews.” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 85 (409), 1990:
TAGUCHI, G. “Introduction to quality engineering: designing quality into products
and processes.” Asian Productivity Organization, 1986.
TANUR, J. M. “Questions about questions: Inquiries into the cognitive bases of
surveys.” Russell Sage Foundation, 1992.
THOMPSON, S. K. “Sampling.” John & Wiley Sons, 2012.
TIPPING, S., S. HOPE, K. PICKERING, B. ERENS, M. A. ROTH and J. S.
MINDELL. “The effect of mode and context on survey results: Analysis of
data from the Health Survey for England 2006 and the Boost Survey for
London.” BMC medical research methodology, 10(1), 2010.
TOURANGEAU, R. and T. W. SMITH. “Collecting sensitive information with
different modes of data collection.” Computer assisted survey information
collection, 1998: 431-454.
TSCHUPROW, A. A. “On the Mathematical Expectation of the Moments of
Frequency Distributions in the Case of Correlated Observations.” Metron 2,
1923: 461-493, 646-683.
TURNER, C. F., B. H. FORSYTH, J. M. O’REILLY, P. C. COOLEY, T. K. SMITH,
S. M. ROGERS, H. G. MILLER. “Automated self-interviewing and the survey
measurement of sensitive behaviors.” Computer assisted survey information
collection, 1998: 455-473.
TURKYILMAZ, S. and O. AYHAN. “Covariates of Unit Nonresponse Error Based
On Proxy Response From Household Surveys.” İstatistik Araştırma Dergisi,
Cilt 9, V 1., Ankara, 2012.
WALTER, S. D., M. ELIASZIW and A. DONNER. “Sample size and optimal designs
for reliability studies.” Statistics in medicine, 17(1), 1998: 101-110.
WEST, B. T., F. KREUTER and U. JAENICHEN. ““Interviewer” Effects in Face-to-
Face Surveys: A Function of Sampling, Measurement Error, or
Nonresponse?.” Journal of Official Statistics, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2013: 277-297.
WEST, B. T. and K. OLSON. “How Much of Interviewer Variance Is Really
Nonresponse Error Variance?.” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 74, No. 5,
WILLIAMS, D. “Basic instructions for interviewers.” The Public Opinion
Quarterly, 6(4), 1942: 634-641.
WILLIAMS JR, J. A. “Interviewer-respondent interaction: A study of bias in the
information interview.” Sociometry, 1964:338-352.
WILLIAMS, E. “Experimental comparisons of face-to-face and mediated
communication: A review.” Psychological Bulletin, 84(5), 1977: 963.
WILSON, D. C. and E. P. OLESEN. “Perceived race of interviewer effects in
telephone interviews.” In 57th AAPOR/WAPOR conference, St. Pete Beach,
WINSHIP, C. and R. D. MARE. “Models for sample selection bias.” Annual review
of sociology, 1992: 327-350.
VELLA, F. “Estimating models with sample selection bias: a survey.” Journal of
Human Resources, 1998: 127-169.
YATES, F. “Sampling Methods for Censuses and Surveys.” Charles Griffin and Co.,