Doğal Antioksidan İçeren Propolis ve Yaban Mersini Ekstrelerinin Heterosiklik Aromatik Amin Oluşumu Üzerine Etkileri
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Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HCAs) are carcinogenic, genotoxic and mutagenic compounds which are formed during cooking process of proteinaceous foods such as red meat, poultry and fish. It is recommended to prevent the formation and minimizing the consumption of HCAs, because of their known adverse impacts on human health. This study aims to investigate the effects of antioxidant rich extracts of propolis and blueberry on formation of HCAs. In the present study, beef and chicken samples were marinated with propolis and blueberry extracts at different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1%) and cooked at 150 and 200ºC for 5 minutes on each side for a total of 10 minutes with pan frying method. The samples were analysed for Proximate (moisture, ash, protein and lipid content), creatine and creatinine content, pH and lipid oxidation levels. HCA levels of the samples (IQx, IQ, MeIQx, MeIQ, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, Norharman, Harman, Trp-P-2, PhIP, AαC and MeAαC) were analyzed. Various levels of HCAs were identified and quantified for IQx (up to 36.85 ng/g), IQ (up to 1.84 ng/g), MeIQx (up to 3.39 ng/g), MeIQ (up to 10.93 ng/g), 7,8-DiMeIQx (up to 3.04 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (up to 0.82 ng/g), Harman (up to 33.57 ng/g), Trp-P-2 (up to 3.62 ng/g), PhIP (up to 1.61 ng/g) and AαC (up to 5.28 ng/g). Norharman and MeAαC were not detected in any samples. Total HCA levels for beef and chicken meat were determined within the range of nd – 38.27 ng/g and 0.11 – 47.26 ng/g, respectively. Adding propolis extract at concentration levels of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% caused reduction in total HCA levels in beef samples by 20 – 23.18%, 15.36 – 56.35% and 34.36 - 58.04%, respectively, while the HCA levels in chicken meat were reduced by 64.87 – 80.94%, 61.91 – 85.07% and 60.55 – 79.73% respectively at same concentration levels of propolis. The inhibitory effect of blueberry extract on total HCA levels at the concentration levels of 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% were found as 88.90 – 97.78%, 90.67 – 100% and 93.74 – 97.31% in beef samples respectively, while the reduction rate in chicken samples were determined as 92.95 – 94.57%, 87.28 – 88.41%, and 51.94 – 95.64%, respectively at the same concentration levels of blueberry. This study demonstrates that propolis and blueberry extracts have shown reducing effects on the formation of HCAs in beef and chicken meat cooked at 150 and 200ºC. Thereby, marinating beef and chicken meat with antioxidant compounds prior to cooking might be used as an efficacious method to reduce HAA levels.
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-citationGümüş D. Doğal Antioksidan İçeren Propolis ve Yaban Mersini Ekstrelerinin Heterosiklik Aromatik Amin Oluşumu Üzerine Etkileri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Beslenme ve Diyetetik Programı, Doktora Tezi, Ankara, 2020.
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