Toprak ve Su Kaynaklı Isı Pompalarının Ekonomik ve Çevresel Etkilerinin İncelenmesi: Gaziantep Örneği
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Both the energy needs and the costs spent externally on the energy in developing countries, such as Turkey, are quite high. In Turkey, most of the heating and cooling processes are done by fossil fuels. This situation harms the national economy both economically and environmentally in the long term. In order to solve this problem, the usage of renewable energy technologies for building heating and cooling processes should be encouraged. Ground and water source heat pumps are considered one of the clean energy technologies that can be used in Turkey. This thesis contains application data of ground and water source heat pumps in order to provide more benefits for the protection of natural life, to reduce carbon emissions to reasonable levels and to use energy sources correctly. In this study, ground and water source heat pumps are compared with conventional natural gas boiler systems and air conditioning systems in terms of cost and environmental effects in a region where both heating and cooling demands are high. In order to analyze these systems economically, initial investment costs and payback periods are calculated. While making these calculations, electricity and natural gas prices of the last 10 years have been analyzed and their possible future values have been estimated. The estimated energy prices and the duration of payback periods of the investments are determined. In this regard, ground and water source heat pumps are a very economical alternative in terms of the annual energy cost compared to conventional systems. However, it was determined that these systems amortized themselves in 18 years in the calculations made due to the high initial installation costs. In another study conducted in Elazig province in 2006 concluded that the heat pump systems installed for the heating and cooling of a single room has a payback period of 11 years. The payback period of these systems, which is 18 years, seems to be quite reasonable for an area of 1767 m2. In addition, based on the carbon emission consumption, ground source heat pumps emit 9.388 kg CO2 / year and water source heat pumps emit 7.615 kg CO2 / year. In the scenario where conventional natural gas boiler systems and air conditioning systems are applied together, 36,484 kg CO2 / year emission is determined. In the calculations, it was observed that the emissions of ground source heat pump systems are 74% less and that of water source heat pumps are 79% less when compared with conventional natural gas boiler and air conditioning systems. This suggests that the use of heat pumps should be encouraged to reduce carbon emissions to reasonable levels and to use energy resources correctly.
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