Türkiye Enerji Piyasasında Yeşil Elektrik Ve Yeşil Sertifika Talebinin İncelenmesi
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In Turkey, about two-thirds of electricity production is based on fossil fuels. Considering that we are largely dependent on foreign countries for the supply of fossil fuels which have negative impacts on the environment. Thus, it is important to increase the share of renewable energy sources in electricity generation. In addition to existing policies that support electricity generation from renewable energy sources, additional revenue for investors could be achieved by establishing a voluntary green certificate scheme in our country. At the same time, the certificates will make it possible to reach green electricity for consumers. The objective of this study is to determine the demand of commercial electricity consumers for green electricity and green certificates, to determine premium of green certificates for the renewable energy investors and to analyze green certificate market volume in terms of certificate supply and demand with the establishing of voluntary green certificate scheme. In the first part of this thesis study, the results of the "Green Electricity Surveys", which is applied by the General Directorate of Renewable Energy to electricity consumers in the industry sector, electricity producers who generate electricity from renewable energy sources, and electricity supply companies, were analyzed. The surveys were answered by 200 electricity consumers in the industry sector, 42 electricity generation companies and 106 electricity supply companies. This presents that a total of 348 different companies answered the surveys with a 48% response rate. In addition, industrial companies responding to the green electricity surveys for consumers are among the top 500 industrial organizations in Turkey. Outcomes of green electricity survey for consumers indicate that 96% of companies would prefer to use green electricity. In addition, 21% of these companies stated that they would prefer green electricity even if it was more expensive than standard electricity. The ratio of total electricity consumption of the companies that present willingness to pay for green electricity to electricity consumption of companies participating in the survey was 24%. All of the companies participating in the green electricity survey for producers and 87% of the companies participating in the green electricity survey for electricity suppliers responded that they would like to benefit from the green certificate scheme. The survey results show that a high demand is exist for green certificates and green electricity in Turkey. In the second part of the study, the use of voluntary green certificates in Turkey was analyzed in terms of economic value. As a result of the analyses, it was determined that the annual certified green electricity supply could reach to 50.8 million MWh. With this amount, 76 million Turkish Liras additional annual income would be provided to renewable energy investors. Furthermore, calculations based on the survey results show that annually 34.8 million MWh certified green electricity demand was from only industrial and commercial sectors. The results show that if a green certificate mechanism is established in our country, an adequate market volume can occur.