SÜPERKRİTİK KARBONDİOKSİT EKSTRAKSİYONU İLE EKSTRAKTE EDİLEN MENENGİÇ (Pistacia terebinthus L.) EKSTRAKTININ VE YAĞININ İNCELENMESİ
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In this study, the terebinth fruit oil is used extracted by using supercritical carbondioxide in different conditions such as temperature (30 and 50 o C), pressure (250, 300 ve 350 Bar), co-solvent concentration (% 0, 5, 10) and extraction duration (60 and 120 min). After the different extraction procedures the samples were analyzed according to their phenolics (myricetin, quercetin, catechin and gallic acid), fatty acid profile, tocopherol content (α-, β-, γ-, δ- isomers) and DSC profile. In the experiments we have satisfactory results such as high quercetin concentration as phenolics; high oleic and linoleic acid as fatty acids. Change in temperature of extraction, has no effect on quercetin concentration meaningfully. As in this condition pressure altering has no effect on extraction procedure (p<0.05). Temperature cannot affect the catechin concentration as in the case of quercetin. However, pressure parameter alters the catechin concentration alone. Another point of this view, gallic acid is the only temperature dependent material that we found (p<0.05). The fatty acid content of terebinth fruit oil contains palmitic and stearic acid as saturated; palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acids as unsaturated fatty acids. The most abundant fatty acid in terebinth fruit oil is found as oleic acid (41.76 %-45.14 %). Linoleic acid is found as second high one in samples (21.05 %-22.64 %). The other highly ones are palmitic (21.1 %-23.85 %) and stearic acid (1.58 %-1.83 %). All these unsaturated and saturated fatty acids are easily affected by temp., pressure, co-solvent percent and duration of extraction regulation (p<0.05). The tocopherol analysis made by HPLC gives results like the temperature changes affect the α-isomer concentration co-solvent percent is also altering all of the isomers as α- one. Temperature and pressure have a positive effect on β-tocopherol. γ-isomer is pressure dependent alone (p<0.05). δ-tocopherol concentration, except the other isomers, can easily be affected by co-solvent ratio. In general the most abundant isomers in Pistacia terebinthus L. are α- and γ-. In general low temperature; pressure, co-solvent concentration and time period of extraction leads relatively high thermal stable compounds as in our example when analyzing DSC peaks. Also, highly unsaturated fatty acid content has wider temperature peaks.