Şişman Kadınlarda Farklı Protein İçerikli Diyetlerin Beslenme Durumu ve Biyokimyasal Parametreler Üzerine Etkisi
Karahan Yılmaz, Sevil
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the general nutritional habits, nutritional and physical activity status of the women and to evaluate the effect of high protein and control diet on inflammatory markers, some biochemical parameters, anthropometric measurements and body composition. This research included 60 obese female volunteers aged 20-45 years who applied Endocrine or Internal Medicine Polyclinic of Erzincan Mengücek Gazi Training and Research Hospital. Descriptive information, 3 day-dietary recall and physical activity record, anthropometric measurements and bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) were evaluated. Routine controls of individuals (systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, etc.) and biochemical parameters (hs-CRP, 25(OH)D, TNF-α, IL-6, fibrinogen and homocysteine) were analyzed. Half of the individuals (case group) were given high protein diet (25% protein, 30% fat, 45% carbohydrate) and the other half of the individuals (control group) were given the control diet (15% protein, 30% fat, 55% carbohydrate). Both of groups were followed for 8 weeks. A significant high difference was found in the consumption of milk, cheese, red meat, eggs, legumes-oilseeds and a significant low difference was found in the consumption of yoghurt ,vegetables, fruit, bread, cereal products and plant oils according to the control group in the high protein diet group (p <0.05). There was a higher difference in the intake of protein, fiber, vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and potassium according to the control group in the case group. The difference in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, body fat percentage and body water mass values in high protein diet was significantly higher than control group (p <0.05), lean body mass values were significantly lower than control group (p <0.05 ). In the high protein diet group, there was a significant negative correlation between the values of body weight difference and BMI (p<0.05), waist circumference (p<0.05), body fat % (p <0.05), plazma total cholesterol (p <0.01), LDL-kolesterol (p <0.05), hs-CRP (p <0.05), TNF-α (p <0.05) and systolic blood pressure (p <0.05); there was a significant negative correlation between body weight difference and BMI (p <0.05), body fat % (p <0.05) and hs-CRP (p <0.05) in the control group. As a result; obese women may lose more weight with high protein diet in the short term than those with normal protein diet. High-protein diets are effective on satiety, nutrient intake and basal metabolic rate, resulting in body weight loss; however high-protein diets are not the only health determinant in weight loss strategies. They need to be evaluated with other health markers (glycemic control, lipid profile, blood pressure). Weight loss strategies are more reliable with an adequate and balanced nutrition program in obesity treatment.