Ekstrüzyon Pişirmenin Maillard Reaksiyonu Üzerine Etkileri
Masatcıoğlu, Mustafa Tuğrul
xmlui.mirage2.itemSummaryView.MetaDataShow full item record
In this study, effects of system parameters and ingredients used in product formulations on Maillard reaction during extrusion cooking were investigated. Different formulations were prepared by using reducing sugars (D-glucose and D-ribose), chemical leavening agents (sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate), soy protein isolate, asparagine, citric acid and white corn flour. These formulations were used to produce extrudates by conventional extrusion and CO2 injection methods at different system parameter settings. Among the Maillard reaction products, levels of furosine, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acrylamide were monitored. Furthermore, effects of formula ingredients and system parameters on physical properties of extrusion products were also investigated. Replacing D-glucose with D-ribose resulted in decreases in furosine contents of the extrusion products. Additionally, furosine contents significantly decreased in sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate added extrudates. While the addition of citric acid (1% w/w) promoted the formation of furfural, limited the formation of acrylamide significantly which has been classified as a “probably carcinogen to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). One of the chemical leaving agents used in the present study, ammonium bicarbonate increased the furfural, HMF and acrylamide contents significantly. The other one, sodium bicarbonate also increased the HMF and acrylamide contents significantly, but at a lower level. By application of CO2 injection at a pressure of 75 psi, a 61% decrease was observed in acrylamide content of the extrudates produced at high temperature and low feed moisture conditions.