Ağırlık Kaybı Programına Ek Olarak Verilen Krill ve Balık Yağının Obezite ile İlişkili Parametrelere Etkisi
Gemili Ormancı, Özge
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Obesity has been considered as a significant public health problem and its management mainly comprised of medical nutrition theraphy, therefore and the effectiveness of different dietary bioactive compounds in the treatment of obesity has been under investigation. In recent studies, it has been suggested that omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) taken from the sources such as fish oil and krill oil may have positive effects on obesity-related indicators; however, the efficacy of different n-3 PUFA sources has not been fully elucidated. This study was planned to examine the effects of krill and fish oil supplementation in weight loss programs on obesity-related parameters and to compare their effectiveness. This randomized controlled clinical study was conducted on female subjects (n=45) who applied to International Medicine Outpatient Clinic of IMC Hospital in Mersin between January 1, 2018 and January 1, 2019, aged 19-45 years and having a body mass index (BMI) of ≥27 and <35 kg/m2 . Participants who had started a 8-week weight loss program were randomized into three groups: the first group (krill oil group) received 1.4 g of krill oil (204 mg EPA + 120 mg DHA/day), the second group (fish oil group) received 1.0 g fish oil (180 mg EPA + 120 mg DHA/day), and the third group (control group) did not receive any supplementation. In order to assess the nutritional status of participants, 3-day dietary records were taken both at the beginning of weight loss program and at the end of eight week intervention, and also 24-hour dietary recall method was used each week during the 8-week weight loss program. The physical activity levels of the participants were assessed at the beginning and end of the intervention period with a three-day physical activity record. Anthropometric measurements of participants were taken every week during the 8-week intervention period. The fasting blood samples of participants were taken at the beginning and end of the study, and serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant system (TAS), total oxidant system (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were analyzed. The Homeostatic Model Evaluation (HOMA-IR) was calculated and blood pressures were measured. There was no significant difference between the three groups in terms of the changes in the anthropometric measurements of the individuals at the beginning, the fourth and the eighth week of the weight loss program (p>0.05 for each); except the significant reductions in waist circumference (krill:-11.0 cm, fish oil: -7.0 cm, control: -8.0 cm), waist/hip ratio (krill: -0.05, fish oil: -0.03) and waist/height ratio (krill: -0.07, fish: -0.04, control: -0.05) obtained in the krill oil group (p<0.05 for each). The mean values of all biochemical parameters and blood pressure measured both before and after the weight loss program were similar in all three groups (p>0.05 for each). Following the intervention, serum hsCRP and TNF-α significantly decreased only in the krill oil group (p<0.05 for each). Although these findings suggest that krill oil may have more beneficial effects on inflammation and abdominal adiposity compared to fish oil, they do not fully support the anti-obesity effects of krill and fish oil. The well planned randomized controlled human studies with larger study samples are essential to determine the ideal dosages of krill and fish oil for a potential anti-obesity activity and examine their potential effects on obesity and obesity-related parameters in both genders.