Afganistanlı Mültecilerin Sosyal Uyuma İlişkin Deneyimleri
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Social integration is the state of living together with equal opportunities by interacting in the new society for those who experience migration. In other words, it is a mutually dynamic process involving trust and hope in the integration of refugees into the structure of the host country. The purpose of this phenomenological research is to address the experiences of Afghan refugees living in Karaman regarding social integration and to identify the difficulties they face. Criterion sampling and snowball sampling methods were used to determine the sample of the study. In this context, in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 Afghan adults living in Karaman. Research data were analyzed with the help of MAXQDA program. The research data consists of 2 main themes, namely "Migration Process" and "Social Integration", 2 sub-themes, and 15 categories. In this study, it has been revealed that refugees experience physical, psychological, and social difficulties before, during, and after migration. Lack of opportunity and trust in areas such as social connections, employment, housing, health, education, social assistance, legal issues, security, and cultural differences affect social integration negatively. It has been revealed that Afghan refugees mostly establish social connections with the social bonds they have developed among themselves, and also social bridges with the local community and social links with public institutions are weak. The social bonds that refugees have developed among themselves actively offer social capital in meeting their needs including work, housing, social assistance, etc. It facilitates the establishment of connections with the local community and public institutions for people who do not speak Turkish. Refugees experience hopelessness because of the uncertainties about their future. The basis of the difficulties that people face is their invisibility. It is thought that social integration policies covering these people have not been developed due to the perception of temporariness. Social integration policies, which include a mutually dynamic process, are considered important in terms of reaching a peaceful social order by improving the connections between refugees, local people, and institutions. It is thought that the management of the process can be realized with national and international governance.