STK Perspektifinden İzmir'de Göçmen ve Sığınmacılara Yönelik Ayrımcılık ve Sosyal Dışlanma: Sosyal Hizmetin Temel İlkeleri Bağlamında Bir Değerlendirme
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This research was conducted to assess the discrimination and social exclusion against migrants and asylum seekers from the perspective of NGO employees operating in the field of migration in Izmir, in terms of the basic principles of the social work profession and discipline. In this research, which had been designed according to the qualitative research method, the phenomenological research approach was used. The research was carried out in Izmir between August and October 2021. Within the scope of the research, online in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 people from 14 NGOs operating directly or indirectly for migrants and asylum seekers in Izmir. Data were analyzed and interpreted according to the descriptive and thematic analysis methods. According to the research findings, while there are several local initiatives and NGOs operating in the field of migration in Izmir, a transit city used by migrants and asylum seekers to cross into Europe via Greece, it has been understood that there is an increase in the number of NGOs with the arrival and concomitantly increasing number of Syrian asylum seekers. In accordance with the principle of collective responsibility reflecting the neoliberal approach of social work, it was revealed that NGOs are seen as an actor and a structure that fills the gap of and complements with the state, and that is vital for migrants and asylum seekers. It has been understood that NGOs operating in the field of migration generally carry out project-based activities that are not inclusive and do not provide continuity. Despite the emphasis on the right to asylum and the discourse of rights-based NGO, it was noted that was categorized and positioned negativly migrants and asylum seekers as victims, threats, problems, and the needy contrary to the principles of social work, respect for differences, human rights, and social justice. Additionally, it has been found that migrants and asylum seekers living in Izmir have various problems with access to rights and services due to reasons such as nonregistration, language barrier, economic deprivation, discrimination, and social exclusion in a way that is incompatible with the principles of respect for differences, human rights, and social justice of the social work. Further, this research found that local population in Izmir is generally distant towards migrants and asylum seekers, does not want them; and correspondingly, migrants and asylum seekers were exposed to various forms of discrimination and social exclusion. It has been noted that migrants and asylum seekers use various negative coping strategies such as invisibility, concealment, and acceptance/normalization in the face of discrimination and social exclusion. Finally, it has been understood that the exposure to discrimination and social exclusion negatively affected the participation and integration of migrants and asylum seekers into social life.