Akrilamid ve 5-Hidroksimetilfurfural'in Olası Genotoksik Etkilerinin Tek Hücre Jel Elektroforez Yöntemi ile İn Vitro Değerlendirilmesi
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The cooking processes of foods containing carbohydrates forms acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) as a result of Maillard reaction. According to previous in vivo and in vitro tests, these two substances are knowns as carcinogenic. Coffee consumption is one of the most important routes of acrylamide and HMF exposure. Caffeic acid is a phenolic acid compound found in coffee naturally that is thought to have antigenotoxic effects. In our study, the evaluation of the possible genotoxic effect of acrylamide and HMF with/without caffeic acid in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell lines (V79 cells) and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2) is aimed. Genotoxicity was evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assay. The cells were treated with different concentrations of acrylamide, HMF (1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μM) and caffeic acid (25 and 50 μM) and different combinations of acrylamide, HMF and caffeic acid with each other for 1 h. DNA damage was expressed as DNA tail intensity. In V79 cells the doses of acrylamide (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 μM) and HMF (1, 5, 10, 50 and 100 μM) did not increase DNA damage alone. DNA damage was increased at the doses of 100 μM acrylamide, 25 μM HMF and 25 and 50 μM of caffeic acid, and the toxic effects of acrylamide and HMF were potentialized when combined with 50 μM of caffeic acid in V79 cells. In HepG2 cells, only 5 and 10 μM HMF increased DNA damage, but the most of dose combination of acrylamide and HMF with caffeic acid caused DNA damage more in HepG2 cells than V79 cells. Our results show that acrylamide and HMF alone may not cause considerable DNA damage however; caffeic acid might induce the DNA damage at high doses in V79 cells.