Ebeveyn Medya Aracılığı Stilleri ile Oyun Oynama Bozukluğu Arasındaki İlişkide Kaçış Motivasyonun Aracılık Rolü
Ambargo SüresiAcik erisim
Üst veriTüm öğe kaydını göster
The present study aimed to examine the indirect relationship between restrictive mediation styles and gaming disorder via escape motivation and to adapt two scales measuring online gaming motivations and parental mediation styles into Turkish. The design was a predictive correlational study, but also a translation and validation study. The convenience sample consisted of 501 students in the 5th, 6th and 7th grades, most of whom live in Ankara. In this study, Personal Information Form, Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire, Perceived Parental Media Mediation Scale and Internet Gaming Disorder Scale were used. Data analysis was performed in R using RStudio 1.4. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for the validity analysis of the scales adapted and used, Cronbach alpha and Mcdonald omega coefficients were calculated to evaluate the reliability. Since the data were not distributed normally, Satorra-Bentler correction was applied to the chi-square test in confirmatory factor analyses, and bootstrap confidence intervals were computed for assessing the mediation effect. Results showed that the scales had high degrees of validity and reliability. Furthermore, the mediation test indicated that autonomy-supportive restriction had a negative indirect relationship with gaming disorder while controlling restriction and inconsistent restriction had a positive indirect relationship with it. The findings were discussed in the light of the self-determination theory. Theoretical and practical recommendations were presented. This study may provide comprehensive and economic measures for future research, contribute to the field of parenting, and help to understand the risk and protective factors of gaming disorder in children.
KünyeAarseth, E., Bean, A. M., Boonen, H., Carras, M. C., Coulson, M., Das, D., Deleuze, J., Dunkels, E., Edman, J., Ferguson, C. J., Haagsma, M. C., Bergmark, K. H., Hussain, Z., Jansz, J., Kardefelt-Winther, D., Kutner, L., Markey, P., Nielsen, R. K. L., Prause, N., … van Rooij, A. J. (2017). Scholars' open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 gaming disorder proposal. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(3), 267–270. https://doi.org/gb22vs American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/brfw Arıcak, O. T., Dinç, M., Yay, M. ve Griffiths, M. D. (2018). İnternet Oyun Oynama Bozukluğu Ölçeği Kısa Formu’nun (İOOBÖ9-KF) Türkçeye uyarlanması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 5, 615-636. https://doi.org/f2bw Atalan-Ergi̇n, D. (2018). Ergenlerde bağlanma, ana-baba aracılığı ve dürtüselliğin problemli internet kullanımı ile akademik başarıya etkisi (Tez No. 505195) [Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi]. YÖK Tez Merkezi. Bağlı, M. T. (2003). Televizyona karşı ana baba aracılığı: Kısıtlayıcı aracılığın biçimleri. Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 36(1–2), 129–149. Ballabio, M., Griffiths, M. D., Urbán, R., Quartiroli, A., Demetrovics, Z., & Király, O. (2017). Do gaming motives mediate between psychiatric symptoms and problematic gaming? An empirical survey study. Addiction Research and Theory, 25(5), 397–408. https://doi.org/f2bx Bányai, F., Griffiths, M. D., Demetrovics, Z., & Király, O. (2019). The mediating effect of motivations between psychiatric distress and gaming disorder among esport gamers and recreational gamers. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 94. https://doi.org/gf6hsg Bartle, R. (1996). Players Who Suit MUDs. https://bit.ly/3lfqOve Behling, O., & Law, K. S. (2019). Ölçeklerin ve diğer ölçme araçlarının uyarlanması: Problemler ve çözümler (A. Özer, çev. ed.). Anı Yayıncılık. Benli, Ü., Kaya, M., Naz, R., Koşar, E., Güneş-Kızılay, F. N., Çerçioğlu, H., Karavuş, S. ve Doğan-Keskin, A. (2018). Dijital oyun bağımlılığı çalıştayı: Sonuç raporu. T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı. https://bit.ly/30HMzuh Benrazavi, R., Teimouri, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Utility of parental mediation model on youth’s problematic online gaming. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 13(6), 712–727. https://doi.org/f2bz Bilgin Ülken, F. ve Kılınç, F. (2018). Çocukların çevrimiçi ortamda karşılaştıkları risk türleri ile aracılık uygulamaları arasındaki ilişki. İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7(1), 124–145. Blinka, L., & Mikuška, J. (2014). The role of social motivation and sociability of gamers in online game addiction. Cyberpsychology, 8(2). https://doi.org/ckx9 Bonneville-Roussy, A., Evans, P., Verner-Filion, J., Vallerand, R. J., & Bouffard, T. (2017). Motivation and coping with the stress of assessment: Gender differences in outcomes for university students. Contemporary educational psychology, 48, 28-42. https://doi.org/f4dm Bronstein, P., Ginsburg, G. S., & Herrera, I. S. (2005). Parental predictors of motivational orientation in early adolescence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(6), 559–575. https://doi.org/fw3w29 Brooks, F. M., Chester, K. L., Smeeton, N. C., & Spencer, N. H. (2016). Video gaming in adolescence: Factors associated with leisure time use. Journal of Youth Studies, 19(1), 36–54. https://doi.org/ghp95b Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit, in K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Sage. Bybee, C. R., Robinson, D., & Turow, J. (1982). Determinants of parental guidance of children’s television viewing for a special subgroup: Mass media scholars. Journal of Broadcasting, 26(3), 697–710. https://doi.org/d5fh7s Chan, G., Lo, T. W., Tam, C., & Lee, G. (2019). Intrinsic motivation and psychological connectedness to drug abuse and rehabilitation: The perspective of self-determination. International Journal Of Environmental Research And Public Health. 16(11), 1934. https://doi.org/f252 Chen, L., & Shi, J. (2019). Reducing harm from media: A meta-analysis of parental mediation. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 96(1), 173–193. https://doi.org/ghq668 Cheng, Y. (2019). The mediating effects of motivation for playing pokémon go on internet gaming disorder and well–being. American Journal of Family Therapy, 47(1), 19–36. https://doi.org/f2b2 Choo, H., Sim, T., Liau, A. K. F., Gentile, D. A., & Khoo, A. (2015). Parental ınfluences on pathological symptoms of video-gaming among children and adolescents: A prospective study. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(5), 1429–1441. https://doi.org/6tq Cihangir-Çankaya, Z. (2009). Autonomy support, basic psychological need satisfaction and subjective well-being: self-determination theory. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(31), 23-31. https://bit.ly/2PrtQkF Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Erlbaum Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed). Erlbaum. Cortina, J. M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(1), 98–104. https://doi.org/fn7g4t Cui, J., Lee, C., & Bax, T. (2018). A comparison of psychosocially problematic gaming among middle and high school students in China and South Korea. Computers in Human Behavior, 85, 86–94. https://doi.org/gds5qz Curran, P. J., West, S., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16-29. https://doi.org/dnbgfh Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268. https://doi.org/bfn2hn Demirtaş-Zorbaz, S., Ulaş, O., & Kızıldağ, S. (2015). Relation between Video Game Addiction and Interfamily Relationships on Primary School Students. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 15(2). https://doi.org/gg33 Demetrovics, Z., Urbán, R., Nagygyörgy, K., Farkas, J., Zilahy, D., Mervó, B., Reindl, A., Ágoston, C., Kertész, A., & Harmath, E. (2011). Why do you play? The development of the motives for online gaming questionnaire (MOGQ). Behavior research methods, 43(3), 814–825. https://doi.org/cpw4qd Desai, R. A., Krishnan-Sarin, S., Cavallo, D., & Potenza, M. N. (2010). Video gaming among high school students: Health correlates, gender differences, and problematic gaming. Pediatrics, 126(6), e1414–e1424. https://doi.org/fk2d9x Dindar, M., & Akbulut, Y. (2014). Motivational characteristics of Turkish MMORPG players. Computers in Human Behavior, 33, 119-125. https://doi.org/f5xvsz Dorr, A., Kovaric, P., & Doubleday, C. (1989). Parent-child coviewing of television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 33(1), 35-51. doi: https://doi.org/fm7r5z Dreher, T. (t.y.). IASL online NetArt: History of computer art. Retrieved July, 2020, from https://bit.ly/38BjfKw Dunn, T. J., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: a practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British journal of psychology, 105(3), 399–412. https://doi.org/f2dpm2 Dünya Sağlık Örgütü. (2019). Uluslararası hastalık sınıflaması (11th ed.). https://icd.who.int/ Egli, E. A., & Meyers, L. S. (1984). The role of video game playing in adolescent life: Is there reason to be concerned? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 22(4), 309–312. https://doi.org/ggh7zn Evren, C., Dalbudak, E., Topcu, M., Kutlu, N., Evren, B., & Pontes, H. M. (2018). Psychometric validation of the Turkish nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale–Short Form (IGDS9-SF). Psychiatry Research, 265, 349–354. https://doi.org/gdrs3h Fam, J. Y. (2018). Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in adolescents: A meta-analysis across three decades. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 59(5), 524–531. https://doi.org/ggkpzs Fisher, S. (1994). Identifying video game addiction in children and adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 19(5), 545–553. https://doi.org/fp6xcm Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill Pub. Fujioka, Y., & Austin, E. W. (2002). The relationship of family communication patterns to parental mediation styles. Communication Research, 29(6), 642–665. https://doi.org/c8vpd7 Gözükara, İ. Ö. (2019). Ebeveyn Özerklik Desteği Ölçeği’nin Türkçeye uyarlama çalışması (Tez No. 594035) [Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Arel Üniversitesi]. YÖK Tez Merkezi. Griffiths, M. D. (2018a). Conceptual ıssues concerning internet addiction and internet gaming disorder: Further critique on Ryding and Kaye (2017). International journal of mental health and addiction, 16(1), 233–239. https://doi.org/gdq7w3 Griffiths, M. D. (2018b). Five myths about gaming disorder [Editorial]. Social Health and Behavior, 1(1), 2-3. Griffiths, M. D., & Dancaster, I. (1995). The effect of type a personality on physiological arousal while playing computer games. Addictive Behaviors, 20(4), 543–548. https://doi.org/c7bs6g Griffiths, M. D., & Hunt, N. (1998). Dependence on computer games by adolescents. Psychological Reports, 82(2), 475–480. https://doi.org/dxq8pz Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2019). Multivariate data analysis (8th ed.). Cengage. Hamlen, K. R. (2011). Children’s choices and strategies in video games. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 532–539. https://doi.org/c4sx3g Harry, B. (1983). Obsessive video-game users. JAMA, 249(4), 473. https://doi.org/c68k5w Hellström, C., Nilsson, K. W., Leppert, J., & Åslund, C. (2015). Effects of adolescent online gaming time and motives on depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 120(4), 263–275. https://doi.org/f3nftc Helsper, E. J., Kalmus, V., Hasebrink, U., Ságvári, B., & de Haan, J. (2013). Country classification: Opportunities, risks, harm and parental mediation. EU Kids Online, The London School of Economics and Political Science. https://bit.ly/2Ni2X1G Hilgard, J., Engelhardt, C. R., & Bartholow, B. D. (2013). Individual differences in motives, preferences, and pathology in video games: The gaming attitudes, motives, and experiences scales (GAMES). Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 1-13. https://doi.org/gf4ndr Hsieh, Y. (2020). Parental psychological control and adolescent cyberbullying victimisation and perpetration: The mediating roles of avoidance motivation andrevenge motivation. Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development, 30(3), 212-226. https://doi.org/gbtm Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/dbt Jamshidian, M., & Jalal, S. (2010). Tests of homoscedasticity, normality, and missing completely at random for incomplete multivariate data. Psychometrika, 75(4), 649–674. https://doi.org/dj3kj2 Johnson-Fortman, K. K., Clarke, T. L., & Austin, E. W. (1998). Let’s talk about what we’re watching: Parental mediation of children’s television viewing. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 15(4), 413–425. https://doi.org/bh7bk4 Jorgensen, T. D., Pornprasertmanit, S., Schoemann, A. M., & Rosseel, Y. (2021). semTools: Useful tools for structural equation modeling. R package version 0.5-4. https://bit.ly/3cwukh5 Joussemet, M., Landry, R., & Koestner, R. (2008). A self-determination theory perspective on parenting. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 194–200. https://doi.org/ccppr5 Kardefelt-Winther, D. (2014). The moderating role of psychosocial well-being on the relationship between escapism and excessive online gaming. Computers in Human Behavior, 38, 68–74. https://doi.org/ggtp67 Kaya, M. (2019). İlkokul öğrenci̇leri̇ni̇n di̇ji̇tal oyunlara yöneli̇k algilarinin i̇ncelenmesi̇ (Tez No. 603524) [Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Erzincan Binali Yıldırım Üniversitesi]. YÖK Tez Merkezi. Keepers, G. A. (1990). Pathological preoccupation with video games. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(1), 49–50. https://doi.org/bptkkv Keith, T. Z. (2019). Multiple regression and beyond: An introduction to multiple regression and structural equation modeling (3nd ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/d9td Kelley, K. (2017). MBESS (Version 4.0.0 and higher) [computer software and manual]. https://bit.ly/3exlcvj Kestenbaum, G. I., & Weinstein, L. (1985). Personality, psychopathology, and developmental issues in male adolescent video game use. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24(3), 329–333. https://doi.org/bn4pd7 Király, O., & Demetrovics, Z. (2017). Inclusion of Gaming Disorder in ICD has more advantages than disadvantages, Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(3), 280-284. https://doi.org/gbrspp Király, O., Urbán, R., Griffiths, M. D., Ágoston, C., Nagygyörgy, K., Kökönyei, G., & Demetrovics, Z. (2015). The mediating effect of gaming motivation between psychiatric symptoms and problematic online gaming: An online survey. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(4), e88. https://doi.org/f7fpg3 Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Press. Kneer, J., & Glock, S. (2013). Escaping in digital games: The relationship between playing motives and addictive tendencies in males. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1415–1420. https://doi.org/f4x6gb Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Chen, C. C., Chen, S. H., & Yen, C. F. (2005). Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(4), 273–277. https://doi.org/dxssg3 Koçoğlu, A. ve Kanadlı, S. (2019). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin algıladığı özerklik desteği, eleştirel düşünme eğilimleri ve problem çözme becerileri arasındaki ilişkisinin incelenmesi. Trakya Eğitim Dergisi, 9(1) , 61-77. https://bit.ly/3u2PMRY Korkmaz, Ö. ve Korkmaz, Ö. (2019). Ortaokul öğrencilerinin oyun bağımlılık düzeyleri, oyun alışkanlıkları ve tercihleri. İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(3), 798–812. https://doi.org/f2b3 Kuczmierczyk, A. R., Walley, P. B., & Calhoun, K. S. (1987). Relaxation training, in vivo exposure and response-prevention in the treatment of compulsive video-game playing. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 16(4), 185–190. https://doi.org/b23t6r Kuss, D. J., Louws, J., & Wiers, R. W. (2012). Online gaming addiction? Motives predict addictive play behavior in massively multiplayer online role-playing games daria. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(9), 480–485. https://doi.org/f38j33 Laconi, S., Pirès, S., & Chabrol, H. (2017). Internet gaming disorder, motives, game genres and psychopathology. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 652–659. https://doi.org/gdkzzm Laczniak, R. N., Carlson, L., Walker, D., & Brocato, E. D. (2017). Parental restrictive mediation and children’s violent video game play: The effectiveness of the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) Rating system. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 36(1), 70–78. https://doi.org/f97454 Lee, C., & Kim, O. (2017). Predictors of online game addiction among Korean adolescents. Addiction Research and Theory, 25(1), 58–66. https://doi.org/ghp4r3 Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2009). Development and validation of a game addiction scale for adolescents. Media Psychology, 12(1), 77–95. https://doi.org/cx4qs2 Lermi, U. ve Afat, N. (2020). Ortaokul öğrencilerinde bilgisayar oyunu bağımlılığının ebeveyn davranışları açısından incelenmesi. İZÜ Eğitim Dergisi, 2(3), 122–136. https://doi.org/f2b4 MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., & Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention science, 1(4), 173-181. https://doi.org/cmd8b5 Martins, N., Matthews, N. L., & Ratan, R. A. (2017). Playing by the rules: Parental mediation of video game play. Journal of Family Issues, 38(9), 1215–1238. https://doi.org/f975sw Mikuška, J., & Vazsonyi, A. T. (2018). Developmental Links Between Gaming and Depressive Symptoms. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 28(3), 680-697. https://doi.org/f4dg Müller, K. W., & Wölfling, K. (2017). Both sides of the story: Addiction is not a pastime activity: Commentary on: Scholars’ open debate paper on the world health organization ICD-11 gaming disorder proposal (Aarseth et al.). Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 6(2), 118-120. https://doi.org/gbmkss Müller, K. W., Janikian, M., Dreier, M., Wölfling, K., Beutel, M. E., Tzavara, C., Richardson, C., & Tsitsika, A. (2015). Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(5), 565–574. https://doi.org/f7bj66 Nathanson, A. I. (2001). Parent and child perspectives on the presence and meaning of parental television mediation. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 45(2), 201–220. https://doi.org/d9qr5m Nathanson, A. I. (2008). Parental Mediation Strategies. In D. Wolfgang (Ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Communication (1st ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/f2b5 Nikken, P. (2017). Parental Mediation of Media. In P. Rössler, C.A. Hoffner and L. Zoonen (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects (pp. 1–13). https://doi.org/f2b6 Nikken, P., & Jansz, J. (2006). Parental mediation of children’s videogame playing: a comparison of the reports by parents and children. Learning, Media and Technology, 31(2), 181-202. https://doi.org/fc2q5d Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. Özgür, H. (2019). Online game addiction among Turkish adolescents: The effect of internet parenting style. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(1), 47-68. https://doi.org/f2b7 Pontes, H. M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Measuring DSM-5 internet gaming disorder: Development and validation of a short psychometric scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 137–143. https://doi.org/f63svz Pontes, H. M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). A new era for gaming disorder research: Time to shift from consensus to consistency [Editorial]. Addictive Behaviors, 103. https://doi.org/f2b8 Przybylski, A. K., Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). A motivational model of video game engagement. Review of General Psychology, 14(2), 154–166. https://doi.org/dpvnng Przybylski, A. K., & Weinstein, N. (2019). Investigating the motivational and psychosocial dynamics of dysregulated gaming: Evidence from a preregistered cohort study. Clinical Psychological Science, 7(6), 1257–1265. https://doi.org/gf9cgk Rajab, A. M., Zaghloul, M. S., Enabi, S., Rajab, T. M., Al-Khani, A. M., Basalah, A., Alchalati, S. W., Enabi, J., Aljundi, S., Billah, S. M. B., Saquib, J., AlMazrou, A. R., & Saquib, N. (2020). Gaming addiction and perceived stress among Saudi adolescents. Addictive Behaviors Reports, 11. https://doi.org/f2b9 Ramirez, E. R., Norman, G. J., Rosenberg, D. E., Kerr, J., Saelens, B. E., Durant, N., & Sallis, J. F. (2011). Adolescent screen time and rules to limit screen time in the home. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(4), 379–385. https://doi.org/cdqp5s RStudio Team (2021). RStudio: Integrated Development Environment for R. RStudio, PBC, Boston, MA. http://www.rstudio.com/ Rivers, J., Mullis, A. K., Fortner, L. A., & Mullis, R. L. (2012). Relationships between parenting styles and the academic performance of adolescents. Journal of Family Social Work, 15(3), 202–216. https://doi.org/f2cb Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: An R Package for Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1–36. https://bit.ly/2OjNxdT Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-Determination Theory and the facilitation of ıntrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being Self-Determination Theory. American Psychological Association, 55(1), 68–78. https://doi.org/c48g8h Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-Determination Theory; Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Press. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2020). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101860. https://doi.org/ggrtb5 Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The motivational pull of video games: A Self-Determination Theory approach. Motivation and Emotion, 30(4), 347–363. https://doi.org/dpj8jp Sağlam, M., & Topsümer, F. (2019). Üniversite öğrencilerinin dijital oyun oynama nedenlerine ilişkin nitel bir çalışma. Akdeniz İletişim Dergisi, 32, 485 – 504. Santrock, J. (2015). Yaşam Boyu Gelişim (G. Yüksel, çev. ed.). Ankara: Nobel. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66, 507–514. https://doi.org/fj8476 Selnow, G. W. (1984). Playing video games: The electronic friend. Journal of Communication, 34(2), 148–156. https://doi.org/ctqj47 Shin, W., & Huh, J. (2011). Parental mediation of teenagers’ video game playing: Antecedents and consequences. New Media and Society, 13(6), 945–962. https://doi.org/bhqprh Tabachnick, B. G. ve Fidell, L. S. (2020). Çok Değişkenli İstatistiklerin Kullanımı (M. Baloğlu, çev. ed.). Ankara: Nobel. Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Res Sci Educ, 48, 1273–1296. https://doi.org/gfjz26 Taechoyotin, P., Tongrod, P., Thaweerungruangkul, T., Towattananon, N., Teekapakvisit, P., Aksornpusitpong, C., Sathapornpunya, W., Hempatawee, N., Rangsin, R., Mungthin, M., & Piyaraj, P. (2020). Prevalence and associated factors of internet gaming disorder among secondary school students in rural community, Thailand: A cross-sectional study. BMC Research Notes, 13(1). https://doi.org/f2cc Tejeiro-Salguero, R. A., & Bersabé-Morán, R. M. (2002). Measuring problem video game playing in adolescents. Addiction, 97(12), 1601–1606. https://doi.org/cgtgjx Tekkurşun-Demir, G. ve Hazar, Z. (2018). Dijital Oyun Oynama Motivasyonu Ölçeği DOOMÖ: GAeçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 12(2) , 128-139. https://bit.ly/3ufwtoH Turner, N. E., Paglia-Boak, A., Ballon, B., Cheung, J. T. W., Adlaf, E. M., Henderson, J., Chan, V., Rehm, J., Hamilton, H., & Mann, R. E. (2012). Prevalence of problematic video gaming among Ontario adolescents. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10(6), 877–889. https://doi.org/f2cd Ünübol, H., Koç, A. Ş., Sayar, G. H., Stavropoulos, V., Kircaburun, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Measurement, profiles, prevalence, and psychological risk factors of problematic gaming among the Turkish Community: A large-scale national study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/f2cf Valkenburg, P. M., Krcmar, M., Peeters, A. L., & Marseille, N. M. (1999). Developing a scale to assess three styles of television mediation: “Instructive mediation,” “restrictive mediation,” and “social coviewing.” Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 43(1), 52–66. https://doi.org/dd9zkr Valkenburg, P. M., Piotrowski, J. T., Hermanns, J., & de Leeuw, R. (2013). Developing and validating the perceived parental media mediation scale: A self-determination perspective. Human Communication Research, 39(4), 445–469. https://doi.org/f5gdhp van Petegem, S., de Ferrerre, E., Soenens, B., van Rooij, A. J., & van Looy, J. (2019). Parents’ degree and style of restrictive mediation of young children’s digital gaming: Associations with parental attitudes and perceived child adjustment. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 28, 1379–1391 https://doi.org/gf9cn8 White, S. R., Rasmussen, E. E., & King, A. J. (2015). Restrictive mediation and unintended effects: Serial multiple mediation analysis explaining the role of reactance in US adolescents. Journal of Children and Media, 9(4), 510–527. https://doi.org/d9tk Wigand, R. T., Borstelmann, S. E., & Boster, F. J. (1986). Electronic leisure: Video game usage and the communication climate of video arcades. Annals of the International Communication Association, 9(1), 275–293. https://doi.org/f2cg Xu, Z., Turel, O., & Yuan, Y. (2012). Online game addiction among adolescents: Motivation and prevention factors. European Journal of Information Systems, 21(3), 321-340. https://doi.org/chmfmm Yang, X., Jiang, X., Mo, P. K. H., Cai, Y., Ma, L., & Lau, J. T. F. (2020). Prevalence and interpersonal correlates of internet gaming disorders among Chinese adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(2), 579. https://doi.org/ggkm9r Yap, B. W., & Sim, C. H. (2011). Comparisons of various types of normality tests. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 81(12), 2141-2155. https://doi.org/dhw3sx Yee, N. (2006a). Motivations for play in online games. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 9(6), 772–775. https://doi.org/cm9hfc Yee, N. (2006b). The demographics, motivations, and derived experiences of users of massively multi-user online graphical environments. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 15(3), 309–329. https://doi.org/bk97t6 Yee, N., Ducheneaut, N., & Nelson, L. (2012, May 5–10). Online gaming motivations scale: development and validation [Conference session]. Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, Austin, Texas, United States. https://doi.org/gf4s7d Yeşilay Danışmanlık Merkezi [YEDAM]. (t.y.). Biz Kimiz. https://bit.ly/2PMlHaw Yeşilay ve Bilgi Teknoloji ve İletişim Kurumu. (2014). İnternetin bilinçli kullanımı ve teknoloji bağımlılığı çalıştayı raporu. https://bit.ly/3rXdpLf Yiğit, E., ve Günüç, S. (2020). Çocukların dijital oyun bağımlılığına göre aile profillerinin belirlenmesi. YYÜ Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 17(1), 144–174. https://doi.org/f2ch Yu, H., & Cho, J. (2016). Prevalence of internet gaming disorder among Korean adolescents and associations with non-psychotic psychological symptoms, and physical aggression. American Journal of Health Behavior, 40(6), 705–716. https://doi.org/b8gr Zanetta-Dauriat, F., Zermatten, A., Billieux, J., Thorens, G., Bondolfi, G., Zullino, D., & Khazaal, Y. (2011). Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: Evidence from an online survey. European Addiction Research, 17(4), 185–189. https://doi.org/bj3dmw Zhang, Z., Farris, K. L., Sun, M., Dailey, R. M., & Donovan, E. E. (2020). Parenting practices, autonomous motivation, and adolescent diet habits. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 30(3), 800–816. https://doi.org/f2cj Zhong, Z. J., & Yao, M. Z. (2013). Gaming motivations, avatar-self identification and symptoms of online game addiction. Asian Journal of Communication, 23(5), 555–573. https://doi.org/f2ck Zsila, Á., Orosz, G., Bőthe, B., Tóth-Király, I., Király, O., Griffiths, M., & Demetrovics, Z. (2018). An empirical study on the motivations underlying augmented reality games: The case of Pokémon Go during and after Pokémon fever. Personality and Individual Differences, 133, 56–66. https://doi.org/ghp4sb
Aşağıdaki lisans dosyası bu öğe ile ilişkilidir: