Ulnar Wrist Pain Revisited: Ultrasound Diagnosis And Guided Injection For Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Injuries
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The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) serves as the major stabilizer of the wrist. Its injuries can result from trauma or degeneration, both of which are strongly correlated with the loading stress on the ulnar shaft and carpal joints. The TFCC is made of the articular disc, meniscus homologue, ulnocarpal ligament, radioulnar ligament, ulnotriquetral ligament, ulnolunate ligament, and subsheath of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. Because of its complexity, it is challenging to confirm the exact component affected in TFCC injuries. The Palmer classification is widely used for investigation of TFCC lesions using magnetic resonance imaging. Recently, high-resolution ultrasound (US) has become more popular in diagnosing musculoskeletal disorders. However, the utility of US imaging in TFCC lesions is less common because its anatomy under US imaging is not described in the current literature. Accordingly, in this review, we aimed to propose a standard US scanning protocol for the TFCC, present relevant images for its pathologies, and illustrate appropriate US-guided injection techniques for their management.