Türk Modernleşmesine Mukayeseli Bir Bakış: Ali Fuad Başgil ve Tarık Zafer Tunaya
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In this study, the Turkish modernization process is examined through comparing the perspectives of Ali Fuad Başgil and Tarık Zafer Tunaya, who have different ideas. The subject of the study is the ideas and thoughts of these two intellectuals with conservative and modern perspectives. With the development of European-based modernization and its reflection on the Ottoman Empire, the Turkish modernization process started. Evolving process at the beginning of 1700s, which started with the military related innovations, continued until the foundation of the Republic of Turkey by showing variety. This transformation led to the emergence of the modern Republic of Turkey. These two intellectuals witnessed the freedom and the establishment of Turkish Republic and then they aimed to protect it. They also witnessed many breakthrough after Turkish modernization. The discussion about the period until the military intervention on May 27, 1960, based on their ideas and thoughts constituted the general structure of the study as this period was the most obvious breaking point of their own lives. This study focuses on how the developments in that period affected their ideas, the similarities and differences between their ideas and Turkish modernization process. While the works of Başgil and Tunaya in printed sources and periodicals were taken as the focus of that study, the works of the people with conservative and modern ideas and of the intellectuals interested in modernization were also used. In addition to the pieces of writings by the intellectuals, the memories of the witnesses of that period and the works of third parties were also scanned. During the study, it was aimed to highlight certain periods and concepts as a method, as well as dealing with the events and cases of that period in a chronological order. In this sense, the main goal of the study is showing how the process from past to present has influenced people and has been internalized by them. Another aim of this study is to determine the differences and similarities of the problems of modernization and democracy through the ideas of these two intellectuals. Thus, a periodic analysis of Turkish modernization has been attempted.
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