Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Properties of Sinapic Acid
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Phenolic compounds, one of the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals, play an important role in the growth and reproduction of plants, providing protection against pathogens and predators, also contributing towards the colour and sensory characteristics of fruits and vegetables. In humans, it is also suggested to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, and cardioprotective effects. Sinapic acid is a small naturally occurring hydroxycinnamic acid derivative. It is a phenolic compound and a member of the phenylpropanoid family which are assumed as therapeutically beneficial and generally non-toxic. Sinapic acid can be found in wine, vinegar, cereals, roasted coffee, green vegetables, and many other fruits. Since the data about the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of sinapic acid is limited, in this study, the cytotoxic properties of sinapic acid were examined in different cell lines such as V79 and HeLa by neutral red uptake and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and also the genotoxic/antigenotoxic activities of sinapic acid were evaluated by using Comet assay (single cell gel electrophoresis) and micronucleus test in the lymphocytes and V79 cells. According to the results of this study, sinapic acid exerted different cytotoxic effects in the different cell types and at the concentrations below IC50 values, sinapic acid alone did not induce genotoxic damage. Sinapic acid also reduced the H2O2- and MMC-induced DNA damage at the non-cytotoxic concentrations.